Back to the table of contents Previous Next ## Examples of supervised learningThis document shows examples of using supervised learning algorithms. ## Train a decision treeFirst, let's train a decision tree model using the zoo dataset. (You can get zoo.arff and many other datasets at MLData.org.) With this dataset, attribute 0 contains enough information to fully solve the problem. That's no fun, so we will ignore attribute 0 during training. waffles_learn train zoo.arff -ignore 0 decisiontree > dt.json Now, let's take a look at the decision tree that it has built. waffles_plot printdecisiontree dt.json zoo.arff -ignore 0It will output the following: | milk? | +false->feathers? | | | +false->backbone? | | | | | +false->airborne? | | | | | | | +false->predator? | | | | | | | | | +false->Is legs < 3? | | | | | | | | | | | +Yes->type=invertebrate | | | | | | | | | | | +No->type=insect | | | | | | | | | +true->type=invertebrate | | | | | | | +true->type=insect | | | | | +true->fins? | | | | | +false->aquatic? | | | | | | | +false->type=reptile | | | | | | | +true->eggs? | | | | | | | +false->type=reptile | | | | | | | +true->type=amphibian | | | | | +true->type=fish | | | +true->type=bird | +true->type=mammal ## Cross validationNow, let's test some supervised learning algorithms. We'll use 50x2 cross-validation to test the predictive accuracy of various models on the iris dataset. We'll do it with baseline (which always predicts the most common class), a decision tree, an ensemble of 30 decision trees, a 3-NN instance learner, a 5-NN instance learner, naive bayes, a perceptron, and a neural network with one hidden layer of 4 nodes. waffles_learn crossvalidate -reps 50 -folds 2 iris.arff baseline waffles_learn crossvalidate -reps 50 -folds 2 iris.arff decisiontree waffles_learn crossvalidate -reps 50 -folds 2 iris.arff bag 30 decisiontree end waffles_learn crossvalidate -reps 50 -folds 2 iris.arff knn -neighbors 3 waffles_learn crossvalidate -reps 50 -folds 2 iris.arff knn -neighbors 5 waffles_learn crossvalidate -reps 50 -folds 2 iris.arff naivebayes waffles_learn crossvalidate -reps 50 -folds 2 iris.arff neuralnet waffles_learn crossvalidate -reps 50 -folds 2 iris.arff neuralnet -addlayer 4 As an example, the output with the 5-nn model is: Rep: 0, Fold: 0, Accuracy: 0.97333333333333 Rep: 0, Fold: 1, Accuracy: 0.89333333333333 Rep: 1, Fold: 0, Accuracy: 0.98666666666667 Rep: 1, Fold: 1, Accuracy: 0.96 Rep: 2, Fold: 0, Accuracy: 0.96 Rep: 2, Fold: 1, Accuracy: 0.94666666666667 ... Rep: 47, Fold: 0, Accuracy: 0.94666666666667 Rep: 47, Fold: 1, Accuracy: 0.96 Rep: 48, Fold: 0, Accuracy: 0.98666666666667 Rep: 48, Fold: 1, Accuracy: 0.96 Rep: 49, Fold: 0, Accuracy: 0.98666666666667 Rep: 49, Fold: 1, Accuracy: 0.98666666666667 ----- Attr: 4, Mean predictive accuracy: 0.96226666666667, Deviation: 0.019238476224803 Incidentally, you might be wondering why I use 50x2 cross-validation instead of the more common 1x10 cross-validation. It turns out that the latter is more prone to type-II error. To prove this, try both of the following commands: waffles_learn crossvalidate -reps 1 -folds 10 iris.arff baseline waffles_learn crossvalidate -reps 50 -folds 2 iris.arff baselineSince the baseline algorithm always predicts the most common class label, and since the iris dataset has three class labels in equal proportion, the correctly-measured accuracy of baseline should come out to about 0.33333. As you can see by trying those two commands, 10-fold cross-validation incorrectly measures the accuracy as being somewhat lower. 2-fold cross-validation is less prone to this error, but it is more volatile. Thus, I like to perform many reps of 2-fold cross-validation to get an accurate estimate of predictive accuracy. ## Neural networksLet's do an example of learning with a neural network, since this model supports a lot of potential parameters. I like to begin by entering an incomplete command. waffles_learn crossvalidate lungCancer.arff neuralnet -asdfWhat does the "-asdf" flag do? Nothing. It is an error. I added a bogus flag to the end to make sure that it would fail to parse my command, and would print out the usage information for the neuralnet model. Here is what it prints: Invalid neuralnet option: -asdf Partial Usage Information: neuralnet(If intentionally causing an error in order to obtain useful info makes you feel uncomfortable, you can also find this same information by doing either of the two commands suggested at the end of that error message.) So now, using the helpful usage information that was just printed, we put together a command. waffles_learn crossvalidate -seed 0 lungCancer.arff neuralnet -activation arctan -addlayer 100\ -learningrate 0.2 -momentum 0.8 -minwindowimprovement 0.00001 -windowepochs 500 The mean accuracy that I get is 0.481. That might not sound very good, but this is a rather hard problem. For comparison, let's see how random forest does with this dataset: waffles_learn crossvalidate -seed 0 lungCancer.arff bag 64 decisiontree -random 1 endIt gets 0.338. It looks like the neural net actually did pretty well after all. In the hands of an expert, neural networks can be extremely powerful models. Unfortunately, they have a lot of parameters. In the hands of a novice, ensembles of decision trees are often a very good choice. So, now that we've found a pretty good set of parameters, let's train a generalizing model. waffles_learn train lungCancer.arff neuralnet -activation arctan -addlayer 100 -learningrate 0.2\ -momentum 0.8 -minwindowimprovement 0.00001 -windowepochs 500 > model.json ## TransductionSome learning algorithms do not have a model. Such algorithms cannot be trained, but they can still be used to transduce. That is, they follow the patterns established by a labeled set to predict suitable labels for an unlabeled set. Let's take a look at some of these algorithms. In this example, we'll use the sonar dataset, which you can download from the usual place. First, let's shuffle the data, and then split it into two parts: waffles_transform shuffle sonar.arff > s_shuffled.arff waffles_transform split s_shuffled.arff 100 s1.arff s2.arff Next, we'll test the transductive accuracy using three different transduction algorithms. (Transduction can also be done with regular supervised learning models, so we'll throw in a couple of those at the end too.) waffles_learn transacc -seed 0 s1.arff s2.arff agglomerativetransducer waffles_learn transacc -seed 0 s1.arff s2.arff graphcuttransducer -neighbors 5 waffles_learn transacc -seed 0 s1.arff s2.arff neighbortransducer -neighbors 5 waffles_learn transacc -seed 0 s1.arff s2.arff decisiontree waffles_learn transacc -seed 0 s1.arff s2.arff knn -neighbors 5The first three algorithms transduce directly from s1.arff to predict labels for s2.arff without ever creating a model. The "decisiontree" and "knn 5" models just train on s1.arff, then test with s2.arff, and then throw away their models. The accuracies that I get are 0.741, 0.75, 0.75, 0.667, and 0.722 respectively. It looks like "graphcuttransducer 5" and "neighbortranducer 5" are tied for the most accurate algorithm. The latter was somewhat faster, however, so I think that makes it the winner. So now let's do transduction to predict labels using that algorithm. waffles_learn transduce s1.arff s2.arff neighbortransducer 5 ## EnsemblesLet's start with a Random Forest example: waffles_learn crossvalidate iris.arff randomforest 30The output will be: Rep: 0, Fold: 0, Mean squared error: 0.066666666666667 Rep: 0, Fold: 1, Mean squared error: 0.04 Rep: 1, Fold: 0, Mean squared error: 0.08 Rep: 1, Fold: 1, Mean squared error: 0.04 Rep: 2, Fold: 0, Mean squared error: 0.08 Rep: 2, Fold: 1, Mean squared error: 0.093333333333333 Rep: 3, Fold: 0, Mean squared error: 0.053333333333333 Rep: 3, Fold: 1, Mean squared error: 0.066666666666667 Rep: 4, Fold: 0, Mean squared error: 0.066666666666667 Rep: 4, Fold: 1, Mean squared error: 0.053333333333333 Misclassification rate: 0.064 Predictive accuracy: 0.936 You can achieve exactly the same results with a bagging ensemble of random trees (because that's what Random forest is): waffles_learn crossvalidate iris.arff bag 30 decisiontree -random 1 end Of course, you can also put other things in the bag besides decision trees: waffles_learn crossvalidate iris.arff bag 1 decisiontree 1 naivebayes 1 knn 5 1 knn 3 end Another popular ensemble is a bucket. Buckets uses cross-validation to select the best model in the bucket for the specified task. crossvalidate iris.arff bucket decisiontree meanmarginstree naivebayes knn 3 knn 5 naiveinstance 32 endIf you've got computing cycles to burn, you might as well throw lots of models in the bucket, then you're sure to get high accuracy on every problem. You can even put bags in your buckets, and vice versa. The following model seems to be quite powerful. waffles_learn crossvalidate iris.arff bucket bag 64 decisiontree end\ bag 64 decisiontree -random 1 end bag 64 meanmarginstree end end Despite the popularity of bagging, there are newer ensemble methods that usually outperform it. One such method is Bayesian Model Combination: waffles_learn crossvalidate iris.arff bmc 30 decisiontree -random 1 endBMC requires more computation than bagging, but I find that it is usually worth it. ## CodingThe examples on this page are about using the Waffles command-line tools. When you are ready to integrate our learning algorithms into your code, see this document. Previous Next Back to the table of contents |